The Ottoman Empire, I would remind people, was the last Sunni Caliphate. That is where I begin, but to inform others, I need to check my dates using some sources.
Call for Jihad
Though the Young Turks had compelled the Sultan in his capacity as the Caliph to declare a jihad urging all Muslims to resist Allied encroachment on their lands, the effort was largely unsuccessful. The Young Turk government resigned en masse and Enver, Talat, and Cemal fled Turkey aboard a German warship. Sultan Mehmed VI, who was proclaimed Sultan after his brother Mehmed V died of a heart attack in July, agreed to an armistice. The Armistice of Mudros formalizing Ottoman surrender was signed aboard a British warship on October 30, 1918. Allied troops arrived in Constantinople and occupied the Sultan’s palace shortly thereafter.-Wikipedia
The “Young Turks”, also known as the youtube channel full of Leftist apparatchiks and propagandists.
The “Ottomans” require a historical explanation, Osman being one of those raiding steppe warlords that came in and took over some weakened dynasties, at the same time that Byzantine greeks and Armenians had been weakened by centuries of slave raiding from Islam. Can’t reproduce your warriors if all your women virgins get stolen for the sultan’s harem, you know.
Documentation of the early history of the Ottomans is scarce. According to semilegendary accounts, Estugrul, khan of the Kayi tribe of the Oguz Turks, fled from Persia in the mid-thirteenth century to escape the Mongol hordes and took service with the sultan of Rum at the head of a gazi force numbering “400 tents.” He was granted territory–if he could seize and hold it–in Bithynia, facing the Byzantine strongholds at Bursa, Nicomedia (Izmit), and Nicaea. Leadership subsequently passed to Estugrul’s son, Osman I (reigned ca. 1299-1326), the eponymous founder of the Osmanli dynasty–better known in the West as the Ottomans– that was to endure for 600 years.
Osman I’s small amirate attracted gazis–who required plunder from new conquests to maintain their way of life–from other amirates, siphoning off their strength while giving the Ottoman state a military stature that was out of proportion to its size.
All of this was backed by Islam, of course. While steppe tribes always raided, they needed the wisdom of Islamic peace/jihad hybrid stability to become constituted as a state or kingdom.
The Janissaries were slaves, usually boys from Christian houses that couldn’t pay the Jizya in coin. Lovely thing, that Jizya, from the pov of an Islamic conqueror.