Wrist alignment in power transfer via punching
The concept of different wrist alignments was something I discovered through experimentation and re-engineering.
Whenever the hand is palm facing down or vertical fist with the thumb on top, the elbow is no longer in the angle closest to the chest. Thus there may be speed and external power, but no internal acceleration to back up the movement after it has been extended beyond the angle the elbow can sustain the power link.
Developing smooth muscle activations has gotten to the point where I have to use the palm up alignment of the hand/wrist, or else my own power can damage my tissues. This also applies to open palm movements. Brushing off attacks, moving opponent’s limbs around, all requires that the contact surface connects to the wrist, the wrist connects to the elbow, and the elbow to the shoulders.
Like an intricate gear system, the small is attached to the large, and as the small moves with little power, the large ones are affected and move with greater power. But the moment a link or cog is out of alignment, the whole system grinds to a halt or destroys itself trying to work.
It helps to have a basic anatomy understanding of the six ways human joints can be broken, the six degrees of freedom of movement for each human joint. The Ancients such as Aristotle had their essences and the Ancient Chinese had their 5 elements. We are probably talking about the same thing, but in different frameworks. Thus to a Westerner educated in anatomy or physics, we understand the martial skills through that lens.