Archive for the ‘History’ category

The Real Black History Month

February 14, 2014

Want to stop a bullet with paper?

February 3, 2014

http://www.mandarinmansion.com/articles/Chinese%20Paper%20Armour.pdf

The Chinese applied the yin over the yang principle here in the making of practical paper armor.

Christian reaction to Roman social morality

January 27, 2014

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexuality_in_ancient_Rome#Os_impurum

If one wonders why certain practices were condemned, I agree with some scholars in that the most likely explanation is a Christian reaction to Roman morality on the subject of sex.

The Latin verb for “to penetrate anally, bugger” is pedicare. The object was usually but not always male. Pedicare was a blunt and non-euphemistic word, and can be used in a threatening manner, as notoriously by Catullus in Carmen 16, or in general to mean “fuck you.”[532] The etymology of pedicare is unclear, but some have thought it derived from Greek paidika, having to do with pederasty.[533] The basic word for “anus” was culus. Common metaphors are ficus, “fig,” and anus, “ring,” which was considered a decorous term and was standard in medical texts.[534]

Men were said to “take it like a woman” (muliebria pati, “to undergo womanly things”) when they were anally penetrated, but when a man performed anal sex on a woman, she was thought of as playing the boy’s role.[535] Martial, for instance, is emphatic that anal sex is better with boys than with women; when his wife objects that she provides him with anal sex in an effort to preserve his fidelity, he taunts her with the inferiority of her anus compared to a boy’s.[536]

The figura veneris in which the woman crouches to lift her buttocks, called “the lioness”, may be intended for anal penetration, since boys in Greek art can be portrayed in the same position; with a female partner, it may be difficult to distinguish in art from a tergo (rear entry).[537] Culibonia (“good anal”) was a humorous term for a prostitute with this speciality.[538] Avoiding pregnancy may have been one motive for female prostitutes to offer anal intercourse,[539] since literary sources indicate that boys were preferred.

Os impurum, “filthy mouth” or “impure mouth”, was a term of abuse especially for those who provided oral sex.[540] “Oral turpitude”[541] was a favorite form of invective for Catullus,[542] Horace, and Martial.[541] An accusation of having an os impurum is an “extreme obscenity,”[543] so vile that Cicero reserved it for men of lower standing than himself,[544] only implying that their debasement tainted their more powerful patrons who were his real targets.[545]

Wall painting from Pompeii depicting cunnilingus

It was a convention of obscenely comic verse that oral sex caused bad breath that was nearly toxic.[546] “Whores of the alleyways” are contaminated from giving oral sex; Catullus refers to “the foul saliva of a pissed-over whore.”[547] The urinary function of the penis makes oral sex particularly repulsive to Catullus, who elsewhere reviles a Celtiberian for brushing his teeth in urine.[548] Martial jokes that a fine perfume turned to garum, fish sauce, when it was sniffed by a man whose breath was putrid from oral sex.[549] In another of Martial’s epigrams, a fellator breathes on a hot cake to cool it down and turns it to excrement.[550] The bad breath and rotten teeth that are attributed to performing oral sex represent moral decay and a general corruption of the mouth’s positive functions as the organ of a citizen’s persuasive speech.[551]

Because of the stigma attached to providing physical pleasure, a man who performed oral sex on a woman was subject to mockery. Cunnilingus typically appears in Roman art only as part of a reciprocal act, with the woman fellating her male partner in some variation of the “69″ position.[552] A wall painting from Pompeii, however, represents a virtually unique role reversal in the giving of oral sex. The woman who receives cunnilingus is tall and shapely, well-groomed, and brazenly nude except for jewelry. The male figure is relatively small, crouching subserviently, and fully clothed; he has an anxious or furtive look.[553] The situation is so extreme that it was probably meant to be humorous as well as titillating; other paintings in this group show a series of sex acts, at least some of which could be seen as transgressive or parodic.[554]

There is some evidence that women could hire male prostitutes to provide cunnilingus. Graffiti at Pompeii advertise the prices male prostitutes charged for cunnilingus, in the same price range as females performing fellatio; however, the graffiti could be intended as insults to the men named, and not as actual advertisements.[555] One graffito is perhaps intended as political invective: “Vote Isidore for aedile; he’s the best at licking cunt!”[556]

Woman fellating a man on an oil lamp

The Latin verb fellare is usually used for a woman performing oral sex on a man.[557] Accusing a man of fellating another man was possibly the worst insult in all Roman invective.[558] It was an act that might be requested from women who were infames,[559] and not something a husband in a respectable household would have expected from his wife.[560] Fellatio was seen as a “somewhat laughable” preference for older men who have trouble maintaining an erection,[561] but graffiti show that the skills of a good fellatrix were enthusiastically utilized.[562] Fellatio was a fairly uncommon subject in Roman art.[560]
Irrumatio[edit]

Irrumatio is a forced form of fellatio, almost always against another man. Forcing someone to be a receptacle for oral sex was proof of virility, something to boast about, as indicated by the Priapeia and the poems of Catullus and Martial. It was also threatened as a punishment,[563] particularly for adulterers.[564] Martial urges a wronged husband who has already cut off the adulterous man’s ears and nose to complete the humiliation by befouling his mouth with oral rape.[565]

2012 Era Predictions

January 26, 2014

http://westernrifleshooters.wordpress.com/2012/09/03/bracken-when-the-music-stops-how-americas-cities-may-explode-in-violence/

Yea, that stuff was probably funny paranoid to many in 2012, before the elections. But when I started thinking of similar things in 2007, many people were even less likely to believe. When I read articles like that, I realized my self appointed hibernation period was about to end.

The Final Solution: Supported by women

December 21, 2013

http://lareviewofbooks.org/review/women-reich-wendy-lowers-hitlers-furies-german-women-nazi-killing-fields

The same thing will happen in the US, as people stick their head in the sand pretending the tsunami will go away with time and elections.

“500,000 women had front-row seats to the Final Solution, where they watched and benefitted from the rapidly declining “racially inferior” masses. And yet their presence, and their atrocities, have been largely ignored for the last 70 years. Twenty years ago, Lower was researching in Zhytomyr, a city in western Ukraine, leafing through the normal stuff of archives, the fading ink and illegible handwriting on tattered paper, some of which had bootprints and charred edges. It was there, among the German records that had been inaccessible under the Iron Curtain, that Lower began to notice an abundance of women’s names among the empire-builders. . . . There is link between the shockingly cavalier testimony given by these women and our collective ignorance of their actions in the Nazi East: genocide is usually considered the business of men, and thus, when it came time to call Nazis to account for their crimes, prosecutors were less interested in these women than in their male colleagues and husbands. . . . Jewish survivors have consistently described German women in the Nazi East as violent tormenters, not innocent bystanders.”

Do not believe in the lies from authority concerning “better systems”. Female genital mutilation in Africa and Islam is primarily enforced by women. There are numerous females in North Korea’s totalitarian regime, not as backups to the power but as the authority and power itself.

There’s a reason why the term “Femi-nazis” exist in popular speech, even though we wish to think there is no historical back up or evidence for it.

The world is not what modern history says it is. Truth is not what the authorities say it is in high school or college. TV, talking heads, and news reporters aren’t telling the truth. Because they aren’t allowed to know the truth.

Always research things and acquire sources of data on your own. Do not make decisions about the fabric of reality based upon the word of anyone else. Independence of thought does not come from obeying your cultural, religious, government, or economic hierarchy. Of course it doesn’t come from rebelling against it either, that’s just another type of tool used by external provocateurs.

Indians burn widows, Islam FGMs

November 18, 2013

http://www.bookwormroom.com/2013/10/29/the-horrible-racism-and-cruelty-of-multiculturalism/

I missed this the first time, but the Indian culture developed the whole widow burning thing as a reaction to Islamic conquests. Once Islamic hordes killed all the males, the women would be kept in perpetual sexual slavery. Thus the practice of a widow killing themselves when their husband is dead.

There’s not a lot of theories about why people would do that otherwise. Even the Bhaalists in Cartilege only sacrificed first borns of the nobility to control population. Widowed women were normally a valuable commodity or had social protections/property. They didn’t just kill themselves because they felt like it. Nor was Romeo and Juliet’s fate something the world had an economic reason to emulate.

Islamic hordes can cause a lot of “adjustments” in local culture. The fact that people aren’t even aware that there is a connection between Indian practices and Islamic practices, shows the power of Islam and of their allies, the Left. Knowledge is power. An ignorant slave is not a full step above a tool. Even if the Left does not destroy America’s immune system via AIDS, somebody else will finish the job against a weakened America. Whether the 2nd Civil War occurs or whether it is interrupted by a conquering invasion, there’s no avoiding fate.

A Chinese History Lesson: Shaolin Legends

March 14, 2012

Part 1

Part 2

And so it begins…

It was the Dawn of the Third Age of Mankind… oh wait, we’re talking about Chinese history. However, the Shaolin history shares one thing with Babylon 5: they’re both long as heck.

Not for semi-literates living on the internet and not for people who get bored reading anything longer than 2 paragraphs. Oh you’d be surprised how many of those there are on the net.

Here’s a modern example of Shaolin conditioning.

Islam is Peace

January 16, 2012

The peace of the conquered

Great map here of how Islam uses peace.

The South call it the War of Northern Aggression

April 14, 2011

Starting from Nathan Bedford Forrest, we get to this issue on the US Civil War.

I was raised north of the Mason-Dixon, in Illinois, the “Land of Lincoln”. I spent my childhood and young adulthood under the understanding that you “nasty, racist, evil southerners” fought the in the “Civil War” for slavery. You know, the standard victor’s propaganda and all… I studied the War, was a Yankee (and occasional Confederate) re-enactor, and the funny thing was, in spite of my in-depth knowledge of trivial matters such as AP Hill’s favorite shirt (red fireman style), dates and casualties, as well as the sequence of most of the major battles, and the gear, weapons and equipment, used, I never delved into the war from the South’s perspective, until recent years.

Although I live almost as far north as an American can live, I consider my self a Southerner “in spirit”. Whether thay flies with any of you south of the Mason-Dixon, well, that might be another story.

Here’s the question I have, and I would like to hear personal stories, family stories, I would like to get recommendations of websites and offline books to read, to help me better understand.

What is it like? Really?

-ArcticPatriot

While I’ve been in the South for more than a decade, it’s interesting to see what those with generations of family have to say. They are mostly classified by me as being in the Jacksonian camp. Not particularly interested in long term strategic consequences, but with virtues to go with their deficiency. Of course, I count myself in the Jacksonian camp as well, but I don’t have the subjective bias that comes with having generations of family going back to the Civil War on the side of the South. This allows me to see things from more than one perspective. Not the Leftist history of the US Civil War but not the South’s biased view either. I have to do the work of research myself, combining sources from everywhere. But hey, that’s why they call it a work ethic. Because hard work by itself is its own virtue, regardless of the outcome.

In other news, this is a good view of Leftist ideology and what their cult members think. Not only what, but how as well.

My best friend in the world (not “some of my friends”, but my best friend) is a conservative Republican who loves Anne Coulter. Meanwhile, I’m looking for a good price on a “2L4O” (Too Liberal for Obama) shirt. Why is he my best friend? Because time and time again he has demonstrated that he is one of the best, most honorable men I know. Human decency can transcend political differences.

It’s a good contrast view with Southern perspective. Some Southern perspective. It shows how closed off people can be, regardless of their personal circumstances or political ideology. Are humans as amazingly slow and parochial as presented here? Why yes. But they can still be useful for the purposes of society and the nation. Useful doesn’t mean they are right in their views.

My comment reply to various things in the comment section:

Either Thomas Jefferson and Jefferson Davis were right about secession or King George and President Lincoln were. It can’t be true that both Jefferson and Lincoln were right about Secession.

Both were right. Thomas Jefferson didn’t ever say you could secede without fighting a damn war, now did he. In fact, Jefferson did in fact, you know, fight a war on secession. He didn’t just think, for he was no fool, that removing himself from the political protections of a system (British monarchy) would also confer upon them the protections, minus the costs, of the system.

Lincoln said the South couldn’t seize Ft. Sumter and union property or take captives of those that are in union forts which happened to be in Southern states to protect the various harbors and routes of the US from external enemies. The Southern states disagreed, so they went and started sieging various union forts, notably Sumter. Georgia declared secession causes on January 1861, Sumter started to fall in April of that same year. This, remember, was without the concurrence of the entire Confederacy. No vote was taken. The Southerners acted as individuals, believing the North would simply allow them to do as they pleased. The Southern states believed they could remove themselves from the authority of the US Constitution, while also having some kind of “natural right” protections from said Constitution, after having fired cannons at union soldiers, who refused to return fire for hours given what they knew of the political situation.

Pure foolishness on the part of Southern leaders. They primarily did so because they believed Northerners were too gutless to fight, like good Southern gentlemen. That’s a cultural conceit that paid what it was worth in the events afterwards. War, ladies and gentlemen, is no tea party where you can bow out when you are full of it. At least not the non-peacekeeping total war.

If I ever get seriously back into re-enacting the war, I will never put on that blue uniform again.

You’re making the mistake of what is often seen in fast converts. They were 100% convinced the Other was alien and to be hated, then they converted to the Other and now they are 100% convinced that the new Other is faulty, bad, and to be hated. Both are distorted views and both are ideologically flawed.

It’s not a balanced view taken with comprehension of all the factors of the war. It’s just choosing one side to portray well, while ignoring the rest.

Slavery was on the way out. All of the horror and death of the War shortened it only by a bit.

Let’s put that to the test. Give Obama 4 more years by voting for him. Since he’s going to be out anyways, why go to all the trouble of campaigning for and voting for conservatives. Go ahead. Vote for Obama in 2012. In fact, just vote for Reid and the other Congress Demoncrats. He’s going to die off, sooner or later. Take that 100 dollar out of your ATM machine, and give it to Democrats. If you really believe that it doesn’t matter how long they are in power.

What’s the difference. They’re not going to be in power forever right. So why not. Just like slavery, it was going to go away, right. So why fight against it. Why pay the cost. Why trouble yourself over nothing.

Oh, I know why not. Because deciding to allow others to suffer, who you neither know nor care about, is much easier than making the decision to allow a bad state of affairs to persist for your own existence. Isn’t it. Human mortality and vices are more prevalent then most would like to believe.

Since we’re on this topic of historical laziness and taking golf vacations the Obama Way, the KGB and the Soviets were going to go away anyways. So what’s up with Reagan trying to get the world nuked and using extreme rhetoric like “evil empire”. Why don’t you chill and let things die out in a generation or two. Well, why didn’t conservatives chill out about John Walker Lynn, Jane Fonda, Vietnam, and the Soviet Union? Vietnam was going to be lost anyways, why even worry about the Communist invasion. Just let history takes its course. The Soviet Union was going kaput soon anyways, so why worry about traitors giving out Navy encryption codes for their communiques world wide.

This, of course, has nothing to do with the virtues of honor, duty, courage, or hard work. But then again, treason never required such.

Why wouldn’t the Republicans live up to their wartime promises of providing land or other economic opportunities to African-Americans, e.g. forty acres and a mule?

President Johnson vetoed all the Radical Republican bills that was intended to secure the actual protection of civil liberties for freed blacks in the South. This delayed things for long enough that the KKK and other Democrat affiliates began to alter the political balance in the South, restoring Democrat politicians to their rightful place. Bedford Forrest was forced to disband the KKK he personally created, which resulted in the KKK splintering like terrorist cells, which ultimately ended up in the various hanging incidents for blacks. Without black votes in the South for Republicans, Republican politicians fell. And Democrat Jim Crow replaced them. The rest was history. The Democrat party stoked up and maintained Southern resentment for more than a century, before Reagan finally broke them free of it. The Dems kept the Southerners in a hutch much like the Dems do with blacks today.

Johnson was a Democrat. Lincoln selected him as a sort of compromise with Southern Democrats believing Lincoln was out to get them. Johnson was not just a Democrat, he was a Southern Democrat.

Wouldn’t that be better than butchering hundreds of thousands of your fellow countrymen?

The South at the time would have seen it as another aspect of Northern Aggression to be taking property that wasn’t theirs. In fact, the whole slavery issue with Georgia and other states was that the North weren’t returning their property: i.e. their slaves running off to the North even though the federal government had laws that said they must, but the Northern states often ignored the letter of the law. Besides, the South could not give up their plantations and the nobility installed upon them. The plantation masters had too much political influence, too much arrogance, to ever take a hand out from the North for their slaves and switch their ENTIRE ECONOMIC SYSTEM.

That’s like you going to the local teacher’s unions and telling them to “quit” and “stop their Democrat BS”. You think that would work. Their entire lives are based upon union salaries, and you think they would change just because somebody told them to or had cash on hand for em? The South was even more intricately woven around the plantation economy.

Switching an entire economy to something else is always traumatic and people will resist it. It’s not as easy and breezy as people wish to believe.

Okinawa and Japan

March 26, 2011

Reading a recent fictional story where a few high school kids visited Okinawa on a school vacation trip, I was invested in reading some more concerning the history of Okinawa.

In list of reading order, here is what I found.

Battle_of_Okinawa

Mass suicides
With the impending victory of American troops, civilians often committed mass suicide, urged on by the Japanese soldiers who told locals that victorious American soldiers would go on a rampage of killing and raping. Ryukyu Shimpo, one of the two major Okinawan newspapers, wrote in 2007: “There are many Okinawans who have testified that the Japanese Army directed them to commit suicide. There are also people who have testified that they were handed grenades by Japanese soldiers” to blow themselves up.[27] Some of the civilians, having been induced by Japanese propaganda to believe that U.S. soldiers were barbarians who committed horrible atrocities, killed their families and themselves to avoid capture. Some of them threw themselves and their family members from the cliffs where the Peace Museum now resides.

However, despite being told by the Japanese military that they would suffer rape, torture and murder at the hands of the Americans, Okinawans “were often surprised at the comparatively humane treatment they received from the American enemy.”[28][29] According to Islands of Discontent: Okinawan Responses to Japanese and American Power by Mark Selden, the Americans “did not pursue a policy of torture, rape, and murder of civilians as Japanese military officials had warned.”[30] Military Intelligence[31] combat translator Teruto Tsubota, a U.S. Marine born in Hawaii, convinced hundreds of civilians not to kill themselves and thus saved their lives.[32]

[edit]Rape allegations
Civilians and historians report that soldiers on both sides had raped Okinawan civilians during the battle. Rape by Japanese troops “became common” in June, after it became clear that the Japanese Army had been defeated.[6][33] One Okinawan historian has estimated there were more than 10,000 rapes of Okinawan women by American troops during the three month campaign.[34] The New York Times reported in 2000 that in the village of Katsuyama, civilians formed a vigilante group to ambush and kill a group of black American soldiers whom they claimed frequently raped the local girls there.[35]

Marine Corps officials in Okinawa and Washington have stated that they “knew of no rapes by American servicemen in Okinawa at the end of the war, and their records do not list war crimes committed by Marines in Okinawa”.[36] Historian George Feifer, however, writes that rape in Okinawa was “another dirty secret of the campaign” in which “American military chronicles ignore [the] crimes.” Few Okinawans revealed their pregnancies, as “stress and bad diet … rendered most Okinawan women infertile. Many who did become pregnant managed to abort before their husbands and fathers returned. A smaller number of newborn infants fathered by Americans were suffocated.”[37]

Suicide order controversy

There is ongoing major disagreement between Okinawa’s local government and Japan’s national government over the role of the Japanese military in civilian mass suicides during the battle. In March 2007, the national Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) advised textbook publishers to reword descriptions that the embattled Imperial Japanese Army forced civilians to kill themselves in the war so they would not be taken prisoner by the U.S. military. MEXT preferred descriptions that just say that civilians received hand grenades from the Japanese military.
This move sparked widespread protests among the Okinawans. In June 2007, the Okinawa Prefectoral Assembly adopted a resolution stating, “We strongly call on the (national) government to retract the instruction and to immediately restore the description in the textbooks so the truth of the Battle of Okinawa will be handed down correctly and a tragic war will never happen again.”[38]

On September 29, 2007, about 110,000 people held the biggest political rally in the history of Okinawa to demand that MEXT retract its order to textbook publishers on revising the account of the civilian suicides. The resolution stated: “It is an undeniable fact that the ‘multiple suicides’ would not have occurred without the involvement of the Japanese military and any deletion of or revision to (the descriptions) is a denial and distortion of the many testimonies by those people who survived the incidents.”[39]

On December 26, 2007, MEXT partially admitted the role of the Japanese military in civilian mass suicides.[40] The ministry’s Textbook Authorization Council allowed the publishers to reinstate the reference that civilians “were forced into mass suicides by the Japanese military,” on condition it is placed in sufficient context. The council report stated: “It can be said that from the viewpoint of the Okinawa residents, they were forced into the mass suicides.”[41] That was, however, not enough for the survivors who said it is important for children today to know what really happened.[42]

The Nobel Prize winning author Kenzaburō Ōe has written a booklet which states that the mass suicide order was given by the military during the battle.[43] He was sued by the revisionists, including a wartime commander during the battle, who disputed this and wanted to stop publication of the booklet. At a court hearing on November 9, 2007, Ōe testified: “Mass suicides were forced on Okinawa islanders under Japan’s hierarchical social structure that ran through the state of Japan, the Japanese armed forces and local garrisons.”[44] On March 28, 2008, the Osaka Prefecture Court ruled in favor of Ōe stating, “It can be said the military was deeply involved in the mass suicides.” The court recognized the military’s involvement in the mass suicides and murder–suicides, citing the testimony about the distribution of grenades for suicide by soldiers and the fact that mass suicides were not recorded on islands where the military was not stationed.[45]

This covers in greater detail what goes on in Japan concerning historical revisionism and the entire purpose of it. It is not to erase the past, but to make it ambiguous. The truth, but not the whole truth. And what we call the Japanese, the Okinawans, take exception to that. That’s because Ryukyu islands are Chinese in ethnic make up, not Japanese, and that’s why the Japanese don’t consider Okinawans Japanese. That’s because the Okinawans don’t consider themselves Japanese. Assimilation has proceeded quite well over 50 years, but it wasn’t at the time.

Josef R. Sheetz
Pedro del Valle

Are two notable names.

Times magazine has a time travel article, written during the 50s at the time. Far better than the modern ones.

On Okinawa, where more than four years ago U.S. arms won a famous and a costly victory (80,000 dead & wounded), General Douglas MacArthur’s Pacific command has carried on a postwar occupation without much notice from the outside world. TIME Correspondent Frank Gibney toured the all-but-forgotten island, cabled:
The rice and sweet potato fields of Okinawa creep over the slate volcanic soil, covering the shell holes and the bloodstained caves where two great armies fought for eleven weeks. Weeds cover the charred foundations of what once were neat stone houses. Near by rise clusters of lean-tos made of cloth, battered boards and castoff American corrugated iron.
For the past four years, poor, typhoon-swept Okinawa has dangled at what bitter Army men call “the logistical end of the line,” and some of its commanders have been lax and inefficient. More than 15,000 U.S. troops, whose morale and discipline have probably been worse than that of any U.S. force in the world, have policed 600,000 natives who live in hopeless poverty. When a typhoon (dubbed “Gloria” by meteorologists) swept the island last summer and caused widespread damage, the Army finally investigated the situation. The island’s command was shaken up. Major General William W. Eagles, commander of ground forces, was replaced by breezy Major General Josef R. Sheetz, a convivial hustler who had done an able military government job in Korea. Air Force troops on Okinawa are commanded by grey, quiet-spoken Major General Alvin C. (“Ack-Ack”) Kincaid, whose slightly absent-minded philosopher’s air belies his hardheaded attention to discipline and morale. Since the change of command, Okinawa’s scandalous decline has been arrested. But Sheetz and Kincaid still have a tough situation on their hands.
Plight of the Occupation. Most American occupation families live in run-down Quonset communities that look like hobo camps. A few officers are quartered in small concrete houses (built with materials brought in from the U.S., at a cost of $40,000 apiece). The rest of Okinawa’s garrison live in hovels. Complained one young officer: “You get tired after a while of nailing the same piece of tin onto your house, watching it blow off in the typhoon, and then nailing it back.” It will take an estimated three years of building, and at least $75 million, before the Okinawa garrison will have adequate housing. (Congress has so far appropriated $58 million.)
Sheetz and Kincaid are faced with other morale hazards. Recreational facilities consisted of a few broken-down movie shacks and football fields. Okinawa had become a dumping ground for Army misfits and rejects from more comfortable posts. In the six months ending last September, U.S. soldiers committed an appalling number of crimes—29 murders, 18 rape cases, 16 robberies, 33 assaults.

Read more: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,856392-1,00.html#ixzz1Hjd9Vvvj

History of Okinawa reveal distinguished record of conquerors.
We have honor to be subjugated in 14th century by Chinese pirates.
In 16th century by English missionaries.
In 18th century by Japanese warlords.
And in 20th century by American marines . . .
But Okinawans most eager to be educated by conquerors.
Deep desire to improve friction.
Not easy to learn.
—Sakini, in The Teahouse of the August Moon.
AT the bitter end of World War II, the U.S. captured Okinawa in the bloodiest engagement of the Pacific, and for four years the despondency of devastation settled over the island. On its fields, supplies—stockpiled for an invasion of Japan that never happened—moldered and rotted. Okinawa became “the junkyard of the Pacific,” the outpost of the outcasts, the place where old jeeps and obsolete colonels went to rust away under the gentle melancholy of the August moon.
There was even talk of returning it to Japan forthwith.
But in the U.S. awakening that followed the Communist conquest of China and the invasion of Korea, U.S. strategists discovered that Okinawa could be a valuable outpost for more than teahouses. At that point, Okinawa too awoke.


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